Contamination Level of Mold: Entero Bacteriaceae Family

Chapter III 


3.1. Introduction

The exploration systemology used a redundant access. The examine has been persuadeed in November 2016 in Bandung city. The reconnoitre, remark and microbiology contaminant sampling was firm from assistance vendors ground as the examine population. The examine cunning used to evaluate conception, position, and exercise (KAP) and defilement plane of shape so Entero Bacteriaceae source. In observation, socio-demographic investigations and others preaspect instruction that can be predicted factors for conception the analogy betwixt assistance vendors’ characters.  Furthermore, prop from the national legislation as a regulatory role on assistance street activities was canvassd to fix and to learn how to improve improve implementation in assistance hygiene.

3.2 Methodology Cunning and Examine Instrument

3.2.1 Methodology cunning

The facts reconnoitre offered the conception, action, and implementation of hygiene exercise by assistance vendor ground. The aspects were all assessed as follow:

  1. Knowledge; an impost of hygiene exercise conception was carried out using an conference reconnoitre.
  2. Attitude; Likert 5 tops tally-misadapt investigations were asked for measuring the assistance handlers position.
  3. Practice; an observational examine of assistance hygiene was used in the impost. This audit used the mandible for measuring of its implementation.
  4. Microbiological defilements sampling; an canvass examine of cleanliness of cooking arm.
  5. The closeness of an implementation of regulatory aspects of street assistances.

The political demographic investigations and assistance ground instruction were so reconnoitreed to criticize the characteristics of respondents.


3.2.2 Examine Instrument

In this offer examine, we used a pretended investigationnaire installed on the regards. This investigationnaire depend of (1) General investigations compliments to political demographic characteristics, (2) Assistance ground instruction (3) Knowledge, Attitude, Exercise investigations (4) The closeness of an implementation of regulatory aspects.

Socio-demographic investigationnaire as a complementary investigationnaire depends of factors predicted that bias on respondent’s (assistance street vendors) conception, action and exercise on assistance prophylactic and hygiene which are pretended installed on lore such as age, sex, nuptial rootation, order plane, enumerate of trade, employee mark (headstrong employer/ employee), how crave they enjoy been a seller and so their improvement per day.

Food ground instruction likenessed the ground mood and mark of assistance that sale, assistance provision, assistance packaging embodied, mark of facilities (i.e stall, variable street vendors, guard, insist, or handed), and so hour prolixity of sale.

The conception investigationnaire, depends of 10 investigations containing multiple exquisites investigations, was giving to respondent for reviewing their awareness on assistance hygiene. The investigations relating conception environing assistance hygiene from storage, purity, provision and peculiar hygiene linked to transmission of microorganisms, and respondents were asked to mismisappropriate one solution from unformed three non-interferences.

The investigations of position depend of 10 investigations. The solution non-interferences for these investigation used Likert flakes ranging from 1 (very misadapt) to 5 (very tally) to likeness a mental counterportio on their tallyment on assistance hygiene implementation. The mandibles for position were congruous after a while the class from 1-5, the conspicuous mandible represents improve construct on assistance hygiene.

The mandibles for exercise on assistance hygiene were adapted from 50 investigations installed on an audit that remarkd on ground. The aspect of reducing cantankerous defilement on assistance handlers/vendors was famous e.g. peculiar hygiene, assistance storage, plague manage and arm/ equipment. The origin of inspire furnish was canvassd so the ice (whether commercially bought or headstrong-made). The closeness of assistance on-the-outface facilities and sanitary utilities was steadfast e.g. availability of toilets, distant washing facilities, abate, deportment, impair, and assistance packaging. The availability of promising storage/refrigeration storage was so checked.

For microbial contaminant proofing, VBRG dip slide mark was used to mention whether there is attraction of entero bactericeae and shape in the assistance street ground e.g. severe consideration, arm, platter, glass and other assistance equipment.

3.3 DataCollection

An conference reconnoitre was carried out in one sub-district in Bandung city in November 2016. The portioiality enumerate of assistance street vendors was randomly clarified as considerable as the remainder from anterior validation investigationnaire proofs. The validation of investigationnaire order has been persuadeed in July 2016 in Bandung city for seemly the investigationnaire and determining the mismisappropriate sampling greatness so an area which should be clarified. The scantling greatness portioiality required for the examine are adapted installed on as the remainder of the anterior validation examine. Installed on the plane of expressive of 5% after a while a reliance gap of 95%, 253 ground/ respondents are needed for this examine. In this cantankerous-sectional examine, we reconnoitreed 272 respondents from one sub-district.

Face to aspect conference was persuadeed in November 2016 by using Bahasa/Indonesian talk and beggarly Sundanese talk as an ethnic talk in the examine area. All examine deeds were in Bahasa/ Indonesia rendering and conference were enslaved on their ground. The examine was proped by helper explorationers, as conferenceers, who had assistance knowlparty enhancement and silent twain talks. The conferenceer had been serviceable after a while sight to examine such as assistance prophylactic in a shabby sight, how to persuade the reconnoitre, conference system, examine deed, and intellectual capability including known agree. The conferences were set in respondents’ ground to easier for solutioning the investigations and to remark their exercise on assistance hygiene. Known agree construct was decipher out by the conferenceer. The conference enslaved as well-behaved-behaved as the respondents  were tallyd to feel-a-share, investigations were decipher out  by conferenceers, and conferenceers so remarkable the solution on the investigationnaires deeds. The conferenceers so acted as an earwitness for observing the hygiene exercise on their ground and chronicled into exercise audit equivocation.

Sampling for determining microbial defilement used a dip slide that depends two agar faces, the principal face the red face was used to fix the closeness of Entero Bacteriaceae source and the prevent face that flaxen garbling for shape. The sampling procedures were:

  1. Remove the dip-slide from the tube by pulling the malleable tab at the top of the dip-slide. Take solicitude not to remit the dip-slide agar (the jelly mark matter on each face) to hit the portioy of the acquitted malleable tube.
  2. Place dip slide agar down onto the deportment, and perarrange abiding the whole agar has generous apposition after a while the deportment.  Hold the agar applied to the deportment for almost 20 prevents, then transarrange aggravate to the other face and use the other agar to the deportment.
  3. Reattribute the dip-slide into the desert malleable tube preamble solicitude not to loss the agar. Next, attribute the dip-slide tube into a dip slide incubator at 37 0C or enthusiastic attribute. The incubation age is 2- 3 days for bacteria. The optimum latitude for most shape/yeast is from 27 0C to 30 0C and the incubation occasion is 2 – 7 days.
  4. After 3 days, generally, twain of remainders were decipher and chronicled. Bacteria offer in the scantling running obtain gain-ground and construct colonies. The exceptive agar for Entero Bacteriaceae colonies obtain rejoinder in red. A bacterial regard chart is used to mention the enumerate of bacteria in the scantling. The bacteria regard plane has five charts that likenessed how sundry residuum-forming-unit( CFU)/cm2 e.g. 2.5 (very neglect gain-groundth), 12 (neglect gain-groundth), 40 (dispassionate gain-groundth), 100(laborious gain-groundth) and 250 (very laborious gain-groundth). While the attraction of shape construct rejoinders in the furry residuum. The chart of shape depends of neglect (0.4), dispassionate (1.6) and laborious (4).

3.4 Statistical resolution

Food prophylactic conception mandibles for the respondents were, adapted installed on the multiple exquisite solution from  each investigation, simply for the portios of redress solutions was assigned a mandible: +1 and 0 in the fact of don’t know/wrong non-interference.

For ten position investigations were adapted from the Likert flake top 1-5, for investigation enumerate 2, 6 and 9, the alterable top was used to number the top consequently it was a privative investigation.

The solutions were classified as +1 top when the earwitness/conference root out the redress attraction on respondent’s ground and 0 tops when they failed to discover it. However, not suited remarkable for a respondent who did not enjoy the interrelation portio after a while the mark of assistance. The aggregate percent mandible for the respondents’ position was then adapted by sum up all mandible in aggregate.

Statistical resolution of the membership betwixt Knowledge, Position and Exercise (KAP) investigationnaire solutions, political demographic characteristics and assistance instruction so microbial defilement plane were carried out to mention the analogy betwixt them and criticize the archetype.

Data were analyzed by SPSS rendering 20. Installed on the plane of expressive of 5% after a while a reliance gap of 95%, all analyses were considered statistically expressive at P ≤ 0.05.

The descriptive resolution, Fisher’s χ clear proof, was performed to picture socio-demographics characteristics of the respondents. Resolution of antagonism (ANOVA) and t-proof was used for comparing moderation mandibles betwixt all factors and observing the analogys betwixt KAP and predicted factors that may bias on KAP.

Furthermore, to canvass whether this analogy frequently multitudinous by biased socio-demographic characteristics for Independent variables interposed age, gender, and order plane, and result trial, mark of job which was generous occasion or portio occasion and having animated courses on assistance hygiene were persuadeed.


This examine has liked by Ethics Committee of the University of Birmingham, School of Chemistry Engineering, United Kingdom. The oneness of respondents obtain be treated securely and the outcome simply obtain be used for academic view. The explorationer and university superintendent obtain hold all facts assembly after a while trustworthy solicitude.


Chapter IV


4.1 Sociodemographic

We obtained 272 counterparts from one area, 269 portioicipants enjoy completed the investigations (counterportio rate= 98.89%). Distribution of some socio-demographics characteristics respondents pictured in Table 1.

Variable category










Age clump (years)




Young persons (25-40)



Mature (41-60)



Elderly (> 60)



Marital Status







Education Level

No Schooling



Elementary school



Junior High School



High school









Profit per day (IDR)

< 50 K



50  – 100 K



101  – 200 K



201 – 300 K



301 – 400 K



> 401 K



Eat your own product




Rarely (1 – 4 occasions a month)



Sometimes (1-4 occasions a week)



Often (> 4 occasions a week)



Very repeatedly (complete day)



Job mark

Part occasion



Full occasion



4.2 Assistance ground instruction

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