Contrastive Analysis Of Noun Pharse In English English Language Essay

Noun turns as polite as other turns personate an grave role in mastering any tongue. Externally noun turn, tnear would entertain no agents, no patients, and no recipients. Additionally, no gist how remote our vocabulary may be, a individual signal is repeatedly scant in pointeding our conceit.. A contrastive disuniteition among English and Vietnamese is compulsory and sensational for instruction and con-overing. Almost integral tongue has noun turns, however, notwithlasting having the corresponding basic constitution, they entertain some varietys..This con-over favor to search inner and exterior constitution of English and Vietnamese noun turns then mould a similarity among two skins of NP as polite as intimate some instruction implications. I anticipation through this enactment, twain I and the readers procure attain notability advantageous which can direct to English instruction and attaining.

Noun turn in English

Definitions :

Le (2002) defined noun turn (NP) as a clump of signals opening delay a noun and dutying appositive. This NP repeatedly goes straight anteriorly or straight subsequentlycited the noun it pointedes.

Ex: A sacrifice of war, he hated the view of soldiers. (A sacrifice of war = he)

According to L.H.Nguyen (2004), a NP is a clump of signals delay a noun or pronoun as the ocean disunite (the top). In his dimensions “Analyzing English”, Jackson added some over market encircling the top which is “the minimal requirement for the incident of a noun turn”. Notwithlasting the NP is in unartificial constitute such as ” scholars” or in obscure constitute such as ” the romance encircling the damsel who used to subsist there”, it must entertain a noun or pronoun pointeding the ocean fancy.

Structure :

Basically, a noun turn consists of 3 ocean disunites : Pre – Modification, Head, Post – Modification. But in some obscure NPs, we can see that the Pre – Variation may hold other divorces. Established on the assumption of NP in the dimensions “Analyzing English” by Howard Jackson, we entertain a constructive constituteula of NP as subsequentlycited :

Pre – Modification

Head

Post – Modification

Pre – determiner

(A)

Identifiers

(B)

Numeral/Quantifier

(C)

Adjectives

(D)

Noun modifier

(E)

N/pro

(F)

Relative subscription, non-finite article, prepositional turn, adjectives, adverbs.

(G)

Table 1 : The constitution of a NP in English

Now, we procure go into details of the constitution of a NP.

Pre – Modification

This disunite basically has 5 divorces as shown in the over consideration. The foremost divorce is pre-determiners. They are a slight clump of signals which may procure-establish anteriorly the identifier in a NP. They so entertain quantifier intimation (all, twain, half, …); component numerals (one-third, …).

Next divorce is identifiers. This divorce embodys subscription (a, an, the); distinct (this, that, these, those); possessives (my, your, his,…). But tnear is one view we should pay care. In any NP, gentleman simply one identifier may procure-place, it resources that subscription, distinct and possessives are mutually detested. We can’t say “that my house” but if we use “of-phrase” delay the possessive pronoun, we can pointed that NP in another way “that dimensions of mine”.

In some NPs such as “five cats”, “separate dimensionss”, the pre – variation near is numeral (five) or quantifier(several). Also, rarely, we can see the confederacy of these two divorces in some NPs. The repeated sequences are ordinal numeral (distinctly ” foremost” and “last” ) + inaccurate quantifier ( eg “the foremost few hours”), ordinal + chief (eg “the relieve five days”), inaccurate quantifier + chief numeral, distinctly complete estimate (eg ” separate thousand people”) (Nguyen, 2004, p. 44).

To swell-behaved the top noun in some way, the offer divorce, adjectives, subsequently subsequentlycited the identifier and numerals/quantifiers. However, in predicament that separate adjectives co-take-establish in a NP, tnear is a administration for their deal.

epithet

Size

shape

age

colour

origin

substance

offer disuniteiciple

charming

Small

round

old

brown

French

oaken

writing consideration

Table 2 : The adjective deal

The developed divorce is noun modifiers which subsequently among the adjectives and the top noun. As we can see, nouns may duty not simply as tops of NP but so modifiers in NP. For copy, in NP “a consequence dimensions”, “children” modifies “book” and “a consequence dimensions” resources a dimensions for consequence.

Beside 5 basic divorces noticeed over, tnear is one aid skin of pre-variation that is NP in genitive predicament. This skin is famous by an ‘s added to the its latest signal (eg my companion ‘s bicycle).

Head :

The most regular skin of top of NP is noun, but in some NPs such as “She is my best companion”, the top may be a pronoun of some skin, regularly a singular pronoun (he, she, you…). Similarly, Jacobs (1995) dealal that divers NPs in English are individual constitutes consisting peradventure gentleman of a noun or a pronoun. When the top is a pronoun, it doesn’t deficiency any variation, distinctly the pre-modification.

Kinds of pronoun dutying as the top

Examples

Personal pronoun

He, she, you, they, we, ….

Indefinite pronoun

Someone, notability, nobody,……

Possessive pronoun

His, her, your, their,…

Demonstrative pronoun

This, that, …

Table 3 : Kinds of pronoun dutying as the top of NP

Post-modification

This disunite is most repeatedly followed by turns or subscription. Three skins of phrasal/clausal post-variation we repeatedly see is: referring-to subscription, non-finite subscription, and prepositional turns, rarely we so see an adjective or an adverb dutying as a post-modifier in NP (Jackson, p.15).

A referring-to article consists of a referring-to pronoun (who, whom, which, that, whose,…) as a top, which notices end to the top noun of NP. If the referring-to pronoun’s duty is view in the referring-to article, we can pass-by that referring-to pronoun.

Non-finite article is article regularly delayout subjects introduced by a non-finite constitute of the verb. That skin of article embody 3 skins : infinite article, offer disuniteiciple article, elapsed disuniteiciple.

In a NP, prepositional turn procure-places most repeatedly dutying as post-modifier.

Some copys:

All the schools in town

A B F G (prepositional turn)

The developed few days

B C C F

Dong Bang Shin Ki, my favourite hush fastening.

F G (appositive NP)

My loud 4-year-old pure Siamese cat

B address age colour F

This detrimental tax collector’s grabbing hand

NP Genitive D F

The Korea hiromance which has gentleman been published.

B D F G (referring-to article)

Someview grave to do

F (inaccurate pro) G (adjectives) G (non-finite article)

The damsel subsequently you

B F G (adverb)

Two horses eating grass.

A F G (non-finite article : offer disuniteiciple)

A essay carol lawful by Lee So Man

B E F G (non-finite article : elapsed disuniteiciple)

One-third of the population

A B F

Noun turn in Vietnamese

Definitions :

Mai, Vu and Hoang (2006) defined NP (danh ngữ) is a turn in which the noun duty as the ocean disunite.

Also, NP in the assumption of Doan, Nguyen, Pham (2001) is a “open confederacy of a noun center and one or over than one minor divorces ” which can be front divorces lasting anteriorly the center noun or can be end divorces lasting subsequentlycited the center noun.

Structure :

As a turn, NP in Vietnamese so has three ocean disunites : Pre-Modification (Front Element), Top (Nucleus), Post-Modification (End Element). Over constructive, according to Mai et al. ‘s assumption (pp. 276-280), the constitution of NP in Vietnamese can be descriptive as subsequentlycited :

Tất cả

những

Cái

con mèo

Ä‘en

ấy

(-3)

(-2)

(-1)

Head noun (0)

(1)

(2)

Table 4 : The constitution of a NP in Vietnamese

Front divorces

As we can see from the consideration, the divorces in the be (-3), (-2) and (-1) are contemplationated front divorces, timeliness the divorces lasting subsequentlycited the center (1) and (2) are contemplationated end divorces. Those divorces are establishd in a sconsideration way as shown in the over consideration.

In conditions of the front divorces , we entertain three skins. In the be (-1), quantifiers such as “tất cả”, “tất thảy”, “hết thảy”, “hết cả”, “cả”,….are used. Those signals can procure-establish anteriorly:

definite numerals : một, hai, ba, bốn,…

Ex : tất cả bốn mÆ°Æ¡i sinh viên (1)

collective nouns : Ä‘àn, lÅ©, bó, bá»™, nắm, ….

Ex: cả lũ con trai

general nouns : quáºn, áo, binh, lính, xe cá»™, máy móc,…

Ex: hết thảy máy móc

Let’s pay care to the quantifiers such as “tất cả”, “tất thảy”, “hết thảy”, “hết cả”, “cả”,….From the copys over, we can see that such those quantifiers procure-establish anteriorly the top noun. Now, induction the foremost copy, is it straight if we say it in such a way “bốn mÆ°Æ¡i sinh viên tất cả” ? Actually, in conditions of dialect, it is rectify but the significance is incongruous. The NP “tất cả bốn mÆ°Æ¡i sinh viên” resources that no scholars are left, but in ” bốn mÆ°Æ¡i sinh viên tất cả”, tnear are some scholars left. So, we can close that “tất cả” can consist anteriorly and subsequentlycited the top noun depending on the teller’s care.

Diep Quang Ban (2000) dealal that be (-2) is the establish captured by signal dispose as subsequentlycited :

Definite numeral/ chief estimate (từ chỉ số lượng xác định/số từ)

Một, hai, ba, bốn, mười, trăm …..

Mười con mèo

Estimate quantifier (từ chỉ số phỏng định)

Vài, vài ba, dăm, mÆ°Æ¡i, …

vài ba khách hàng

Allocating signals (từ hàm ý phân phối)

Má»-i, má»™t, từng,…

Má»-i công dân

Articles (quán từ)

Những, các, má»™t,..

Những bác sÄ©

Word “mấy”

Mấy con gà này

Table 5: the be (-2) in a NP in Vietnamese

However, we should pay care that such divorces as “vài, vài ba, dăm,…” can not co-exist delay the quantifiers such as “tất cả”, “tất thảy”, “hết thảy”, “hết cả”, “cả” in the be (-3).

In conditions of the be (-1), Diep Quang Ban (2000) dealal that it is captured by the deictic signal “cái” (từ chỉ xuất) in deal to emphaextent views noticeed in the top noun. However, rarely, “cái” is replaced by another deictic signal such as “con” in NP “con người ấy”. In Vietnamese NP, “cái” procure-places anteriorly the top noun and can glide-away among a numeral (if tnear is one) and the disposeifier or a mete turn. It may be preceded by other pre-noun modifiers such as quantifiers, numerals, and subscription. It must regularly co-take-establish delay a disposeifier as in ” ba cái cuá»™n len kia ” or “ba cái thùng nÆ°á»›c này”. Besides, “cái” is rarely miscaptured delay the homonymous disposeifier “cái”, but it’s incongruous from disposeifier cái as polite as other disposeifiers in term of dispensation and duty. When “cái” precedes a sum noun, the use of a disposeifier is indecent, as shown in (a). However, “cái” cannot be used anteriorly the homonymous disposeifier as shown in (b)

ba cái cuá»™n len (correct)

ba cái cái chén (incorrect)

Usually, delay the nearness of the deictic signal, the noun is distinct enjoy “này”, ” kia”, “ấy”, ….(eg: cái thằng nhóc này) . But, in unwritten tongue, we repeatedly see that the distincts are pass-byted, enjoy “cái thằng nhóc”.

The center (top noun) :

According to Dinh Dien (n.d), the center (be (0)) may be a noun(boy, tutor, cat, house…) or a confederacy among a disposeifier (danh từ chỉ loại) and the top noun such as ” con người”, “quyển sách”, “máy sấy”. Otherwise, the top noun may be a disposeifier followed by a descriptive open signal throng (tổ hợp từ tá»± do miêu tả) such as “hai người Ä‘ang ngồi nói chuyện đằng kia”, “những việc bàn hôm bữa” Additionally, signals which are not nouns can so be the top due to the momentous action of Vietnamese. For copy, we can lessen the NP “hai cốc cà phê Ä‘en” into the NP “hai Ä‘en”.

Some Vietnamese disposeifiers are commsimply used:

cái : used for most insensible views (cái bàn, cái ghế,..)

con: regularly for animals and consequence (con bé), but can be used to explain some insensible views (con dao, con đường)

bài: used for compositions enjoy carols, drawings, poems, essays, etc (bài thÆ¡, bài hát,..)

cây: used for stick-enjoy views (cây phượng, cây súng,…)

tòa: buildings of authority: courts, halls, “ivory towers” (tòa nhà,..)

quả/trái: used for circular views (quả chuối, trái đất,..)

quyển/cuốn: used for dimensions-enjoy views (cuốn sách, quyển tạp chí,..)

tờ: sheets and other diluted views made of pamphlet (tờ giấy, tờ báo,..)

lá: slighter sheets of pamphlet (lá thÆ¡, lá bài,…)

việc: an fact or an ongoing regularity (việc kinh doanh, việc học,…)

End divorces:

Doan et al. disposeified the end divorces in conditions of disunite of discourse, constitution, way of affinity, deal of some divorces.

c.1) In conditions of disunite of discourse :

noun

lớp ngoại ngữ

verb

lớp giao tiếp

adjective

lá»›p Ä‘ông

chief numeral

lá»›p 4

noun of establish

lá»›p trên láºu

noun of time

lớp buổi tối

pronoun

lá»›p cá»a tôi

Table 6 : The end divorces in Vietnamese NP in conditions of disunite of discourse

c.2) In conditions of constitution:

A chief – ally turn: sách văn học Mỹ

A coordinated turn: sách nghe và nói

A S-V turn: sách mẹ tôi vừa mua

c.3) In conditions of way of affinity:

Direct ways ( eg: tinh tháºn thép, mắt bồ câu…)

Indirect ways (eg : bá»™ phim mà anh thích, bài viết mà tôi vừa hoàn thành)

c.4) In conditions of the subsequentlycited deal:

The center ƒ  A ƒ B (a, b, c, d) ƒ C

A

B

C

goes delay the center to constitute a turn (a coalescence noun)

describes the characteristics of the view that the center noticeed

Ex: phòng khách rá»™ng, bàn làm việc sang trọng,….

distinct pronouns such as “này, ấy, Ä‘ó”…

a

b

C

d

a noun, a verb or an adjective

“về + noun” or “bằng + noun”

“cá»a + noun” or “ở + noun”

Clauses

Table 6 : The end divorces in Vietnamese NP in conditions of some divorces’ deal.

Someview encircling distincts may producer you misunderlasting if we deal them in incongruous deal. For copy, assimilate two NPs ” việc ấy cá»a anh” and “việc cá»a anh ấy”, we can see the variety in significance near due to our momentous ring. In the foremost NP, if we tell delay a spiritless ring, we can underconsist it as “his labor”, forasmuch-as, if we tell delay a prominence ring at “ấy” in the relieve NP, it can be implicit that “it’s your labor, not others’ labor”.

Some copys :

Tất cả những cái váy Ä‘en bằng jeans ở stock Cass mà cậu

(-1) (-2) (-3) (0) (1) (aƒ bƒ cƒ d)

thường thấy Ä‘ó

(2)

b) Đường đua số 2 ở trước mặt (Diep, 2000, p. 60)

(0) (1) ( chief estimateƒ c)

c) Những thằng nhóc nghịch ngợm ấy

(-2) (0) (1) (adjective) (2)

d) Sàn nhà chi má»›i lau

(0) (1) (S-V turn)

e) Cái cuốn tạp chí ở trên kệ Ä‘ó

(-1) (0) (1) (c) (2)

A similarity of English NP and Vietnamese NP

From what we debate over encircling the NP in English and Vietnamese, we can see that twain of them entertain a basic constitution : pre-modification, top, post-modification. . However, tnear are quiescent some varietys among them. We procure debate some famous similarities and varietys in the bes of pre-variation and post-variation in English and Vietnamese NP.

Firstly, in twain English and Vietnamese NP, quantifier, numerals, components consist anteriorly the top noun.

(a) All those old chairs

Quantifier top noun

(b) Separate thousand people

numeral top noun

(c) One-third of my scholars

component top noun

(a) Tất cả những cái ghế cÅ© Ä‘ó

quantifier top noun adjective

(b) Vài ngàn người

numeral top noun

(c) Má»™t pháºn ba số học sinh cá»a tôi

component top noun

Secondly, distinct, ordinal estimates, possessives subsequently anteriorly the top noun in English but subsequentlycited the top noun in Vietnamese.

That catholic brick house

distinct top noun

The relieve ramble to Korea

ordinal estimate top noun

My favourite aromatic food

possessive top noun

(a) Ngôi nhà bằng gạch to lá»›n Ä‘ó

top noun distinct

(b) Chuyến du lịch thứ hai đến Hàn Quốc

top noun ordinal estimate

(c) Thức ăn cay yêu thích cá»a tôi

top noun possessive

Thirdly, in conditions of adjectives, we put them in front of the top noun in English NP but in Vietnamese, we put them subsequentlycited the top noun.

Ex : cái bàn màu nâu làm bằng gá»- xoài

top noun. adjectives

A brown oaken consideration.

adjectives top noun.

However, in some predicaments, adjectives subsequently subsequentlycited the top noun in English NP such as “notability strange”, “somebody brave”,… Additionally, the deal of adjectives modifiers in English is rather unwandering (epithet, extent, figure, age, colour, spring, gist, offer disuniteiciple) forasmuch-as that in Vietnamese NP may be exchanged, established on the teller’s care. For copy, in English, we gentleman entertain simply one deal “a tolerably blue-colored-colored skirt” but when we say in Vietnamese, tnear are 2 ways “má»™t chiếc váy màu xanh da trời xinh xắn” and ” má»™t chiếc váy xinh xắn màu xanh da trời”.

Moreover, in English NP, the incident of nouns and determiners is indecent but optional in Vietnamese NP. So, if we consgentleman the turn ” cuốn sách trên bàn” into Vietnamese, it procure be ” dimensions on consideration”. Is it straight? As you see, the gentleman turn should be ” the dimensions on the consideration” .

In Vietnamese, disposeifiers are generally indecent in numerated NP forasmuch-as in English, we don’t normally use disposeifiers anteriorly nouns, bar some distinctive signals “a two of shoes”, “a loaf of bread” ….

EX: In English, we say “two dimensionss” but in Vietnamese, we say “hai cuốn sách”.

The offer variety I insufficiency to notice is the be of noun modifiers. In English NP, they subsequently anteriorly a top noun but in Vietnamese, they subsequently subsequentlycited the top noun. Nevertheless, in some predicaments in Vietnamese, noun modifiers precedes the top noun (eg má»™t thi nhân, má»™t cờ thá»,..)

A ballet dispose

A bundle ramble

A summer campaign

(a) Má»™t lá»›p ba lê

(b) Chuyến du lịch trọn gói

(c) chiến dịch mùa hè

Last but not meanest, rarely tnear are some vague constitutions that producer us disordered. In Vietnamese, what subsequentlys into people’s opinion foremost is unwritten foremost is the vile administration, which is so a probable deal of people’s dilutedking (Dinh, n.d, p. 11). Let’s procure a NP as an copy. How divers ways you can say the English NP “a new Korean leather coat” ? We entertain “má»™t cái áo khoác má»›i bằng lông thú cá»a Hàn Quốc” or “má»™t cái áo khoác Hàn Quốc bằng lông thú má»›i” and “má»™t cái áo khoác bằng lông thú Hàn Quốc má»›i”.

It seems that in the English NP, the be of pre-modifiers and post-premodifiers are not so open and ductile as that in Vietnamese NP

Implication in English instruction and attaining

Learners of English may entertain some intricateies such as how to consgentleman from

English into Vietnamese and sin versa due to the varietys in the be of pre-modifiers and post-modifiers we entertain gentleman noticeed over (for copy: má»™t quyển sách hay – a dimensions good-natured-natured or a dimensions sensational. They may so be in intricatey delay the deal of the adjectives in a rather crave noun turn delay divers adjectives. Which adjective subsequently foremost? Which one procure subsequently offer? Wnear should we put those adjectives. Vietnamese scholars may furnish it intricate to recall all the bes due to the action of placing the adjectives subsequentlycited the top noun and using them flexibly.

Knowing evidently encircling English NP and Vietnamese NP, distinctly the varietys as polite as the vile mistakes that Vietnamese attainers repeatedly encounter procure acceleration the tutors conduct their scholars rectifyly. In other signals, attainers can recognize their mistakes from the opening so that they can furnish it lenient to attain English succeeding, distinctly dialect. Established on the recognizeledge of English NP and Vietnamese NP, the tutors so contemplation the tasks for scholars to fuse and action recognizeledge of turns and sentences in twain two tongues.

Conclusion

In blank, although NP in English and Vietnamese has the corresponding basic constitution (pre-modification, top, post-modification), they are not the corresponding in the signal deal of pre-variation and post-modification. These varietys are producerd by the original in dilutedking and momentous action of English and Vietnamese. As a scholar as polite as a tutor-to-be, this investigation accelerations me a lot. When doing this enactment, I entertain a fortune to fuse my recognizeledge of twain English and Vietnamese and recognize notability new and advantageous. Delay what I attain from this investigation, I procure direct to my con-over and instruction progress.

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