Designing an automated lawn mower

Chapter 1: Introduction to the con-over

Backcause to the discovery

The chief lawn mower was substitute in 1827 and patented in 1830 by Edwin Beard Budding, an engineer from Stroud, Gloucestershire, England.

He got this effect behind inspection a utensil in a textile toil, they used a trenchant cylinder (or bladed stagger) mounted on a bench to embellish cloth to fashion a calm accomplish behind weaving. Budding realized that a alove concept would qualify the trenchant of grass if the mechanism could be mounted in a wheeled establish to fashion the blades depend delay to the lawn’s demeanor.

First lawn mower was all made of stamp sinewy and featured a large counterchange roller aftercited a opportunity a trenchant cylinder (reel) in the face. Stamp sinewy ownership wheels transferred council from the counterchange roller to the trenchant cylinder. These utensils were remarkably alove to present mowers.

By 2000, robotic are most dignified things in the forthcoming, no substance if they are used to toil in toil or at our settlements, thrive some of the civilized capabilities, or used to entrance hazardous environments, launched to intervenience, or solely used to delineate aftercited a opportunity. They are succor to contract civilized dependencies in fulfiling a work and to contract occasion for genesis opportunity practiseing accordant attribute of genesis outputs. Robotic devices are habitually used in manufactumelody industries and for domiciliary use as well-behaved.

Modern houses normally pasture aftercited a opportunity grass insufficiency to be practiseed at a lacking top, is most user subvert. Oral lawn mowing is repeatedly a anxiety, hazardous and occasion consuming in trenchant the grass. The work of manual lawn mowing can be replaced by effortless lawn mower using a robot programmed to fulfil such work. A effortless lawn mower is intentional and established in this scheme.

Automatic Lawn mower to-boot can act as an aid to settlementowners who can no longer fulfil visiblely demanding works, such as the primeval or disabled. On the residential aspect, numerous primeval and disabled possess lawn subsistence, but are no longer cogent to possess the indemnification of practiseing their own lawn due to the visible demands of oral lawn mowing equipment. These discoveryes (effortless lawn mowers) are very primeval and disabled well-desirous aftercited a opportunity the sickly. Effortless lawn mower to-boot has the Perfect Balance Betwixt Eco-well-desirous and Practicality.

Robots are very rich, not any persons indeed neglect to buy precious robotic devices. Create a low absorb inrich effortless lawn mower procure encourage house owners to practise their lawn aftercited a opportunityout spending sublimely occasion and capital. An autonomous robot can mow the lawn of a loving favomelody area of the pasture aftercited a opportunityout any civilized supervision.

Research whole / Discovery question

However aftercited a opportunity the consecutive fruit, diverse instrument to-boot fashion the harsh affront. Oil coal instrument are depleting lackingages of air and careful defilement.

In the 20th seniority, air turning-summit is any sublime bottleneck (or charge melt) in the yield of air instrument to an distribution. It usually refers to the lackingage of oil and close to electricity or other cosmical instrument. An air turning-summit may be referred to as an oil turning-point, petroleum turning-point, air lackingage, electricity lackingage or electricity turning-point.

The neighbomelody forthcoming, the petroleum turning-summit already is a very big whole. Globality by way of unload, they would augmentation the petroleum charge, and disgrace their payment. Still got another state, “hit sb. when he’s down” augmentation the petroleum charge, and fashion improvement. Market insufficiency is lovely when engrossment origination of markets occurs. A turning-summit can enucleate due to industrial actions love agreement unembarrassed strikes and council embargoes. The producer may be balance-consumption, ageing infrastructure and casually bottlenecks at oil refineries and mien facilities enclose fuel yield. That turning-summit involves the toil, concern, carrying employment, until economic cunning.

In tally to the petroleum turning-point, the principles of inexperienced air and sustaincogent aid movements fashion popularity. This has led to increasing share in alternate council/fuel discovery such as fuel cell technology, melting nitrogen distribution, hydrogen fuel, biodiesel, brilliant air, geothermal air, tidal air, thrive council, and coil air, and disamalgamate council.

Rotary mowers can hurl out offscourings aftercited a opportunity dreadful soundness is one of the most hazardous utensils environing the settlement. Each year, approximately 80,000 persons aftercited a opportunity injuries producerd by council mowers were treated in exigency departments. Over than 9,000 of the persons rack were younger than 18 years.

Lawn mower injuries grasp intense cuts, waste of fingers and toes, mild and dislocated bones, burns, and eye and other injuries. Some injuries are very careful. Both users of mowers and those who are neighboringby can be rack.

More than 20 percent of lawn mower injuries involving the hands, fingers or wrist. Some occasion the users neglect to adright the top of the mower’s wheels, learn haul out the scintilla plug behind that the lawn mower suddenly turns on. When the user use lawn mower to-boot insufficiency to fashion endumelody all offscourings (rocks, sticks and toys) are removed from the yard anteriorly you inaugureprove mowing. Loose objects can scheme out of the lawn mower and producer careful waste.

Aims and objectives

In the sequence of contemplation and installation of an autonomous robot, the aftercited criteria are set to aim its objectives:

The robot must trenchant grass in the demeanor area

The robot must not be too precious and be affordcogent to all

The lawn mower trenchant utensil can be disposecogent aftercited a opportunity servo motor

The robot to-boot can be rechargecogent air aftercited a opportunity brilliant planer.

To furnish an automated lawn mower which thrives a programmed footpathwayway of basis summit aftercited a opportunityout the use of calibration marker, unencumbereds, wires, or buried conductors

To furnish an automated lawn mower that is manifold in programming such that it can be maneuvered to thrive any visiblely lovely footpathwayway including transection balance itself and permutation of direction

Justification for the discovery

On the residential aspect, numerous primeval and disabled possess lawn subsistence, but are no longer cogent to possess the indemnification of practiseing their own lawn due to the visible demands of oral lawn mowing equipment. These discoveryes (effortless lawn mowers) are very primeval and disabled well-desirous aftercited a opportunity the sickly.


Automated lawn mower, are mower effortlessally concurrently the laterality of a swath which has been cut aftercited a opportunityin or environing an area of uncut grass. That grasps a sensor parterre mounted on the face of the mower to discover the laterality of the swath by sensing the unanalogous in top betwixt uncut grass and the cut grass in the swath. In face of the lawn mower, to-boot got a one handle sensor, that media it procure be effortless dodge clash aftercited a opportunity obstacles concurrently its footpathwayway. Automated lawn mower to-boot can disposecogent the trenchant utensil environing 1cm~3cm, this duty is let the user select which top aftercited a opportunity the grass. This mower using the brilliant planer to propagate the council, and rechargecogent lithium battery, let the mower moveing over occasion.


Automatic grass cutters are environmentally well-desirous (no petrol, oil or speechs). No insufficiency bagging and classification of clippings is eliminated. It to-boot can vigorous and saccharine looking lawn. In restitution to environmental security, to-boot can snatch user occasion and capital.

Chapter 2 : Literature review

Most persons do not ally air defilement aftercited a opportunity mowing the lawn. Yet speechs from lawn mowers, snow blowers, manacle saws, leaf vacuums, and alove outdoor council equipment are a speaking beginning of defilement. Today’s minute engines discharge tall flattens of carbon monoxide, a innocent, odorless, infect-ant gas. They to-boot discharge hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, pollutants that add to the structure of ozone. Opportunity ozone occurs cosmically in the upper sky and shields the globe from hurtful radiation, ozone at cause flatten is a hurtful pollutant. Ground-flatten ozone impairs lung duty, inhibits stock augmentation, and is a key element of smog.

Each weekend, environing 54 pet Americans mow their lawns, using 800 pet gallons of gas per year and surrendemelody tons of air pollutants. Pasture equipment engines, which own had extravagant speechs until very of-late, discharge tall flattens of carbon monoxide, irresolute constitutional compounds and nitrogen oxides, surrendemelody up to 5% of the nation’s air defilement and a good-natured-natured negotiate over in metropolitan areas. According to the U.S. Environmental Security Agency (EPA), a oral gas counciled lawn mower produces as sublimely air defilement as 43 new cars each is entity inciten 12,000 miles.

Among divers kinds of outdoor equipment, lawn mowers are an dignified associate to polity uproar, aftercited a opportunity the blades contributing up to 50% of uproar (Tauro & Mann III, 1997). Lawn mowers can be right as resonant as leaf blowers. According to the Canadian Heamelody Society (1991), lawn mowers can discharge 80-96 dB(A) when measured at a absence of three feet.

Like gas-powered leaf blowers, gas-powered lawn mowers discharge air pollutants. As point-outd in Tcogent 4 under, these air pollutants grasp hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate substance.

These speechs resemble less than 5% of the whole speechs of these identical pollutants in Canada, save for hydrocarbons, which are neighboringly 14% of whole hydrocarbon speechs (Environment Canada, 1994).

Two-stroke lawn mowers conceal to be over polluting than filthy-stroke models. For specimen, one con-over set-up that lawn mowers aftercited a opportunity two-stroke engines discharge hydrocarbons at an mediocre reprove in redundancy of seven occasions the reprove of speech from lawn mowers aftercited a opportunity filthy-stroke engines (Priest et al., 2000). Evaporative fuel speechs from lawn mowers are estimated to be 5.8 grams/day (Wong, 2001). Lawn mowers can be over polluting than driving a car. One half-hour of lawn mowing aftercited a opportunity a regular walk-behind mower produces as sublimely hydrocarbon speechs as driving a 1995 automobile for environing 100 miles or 160 kilometres (California Air Instrument Board, 2000). A Swedish con-over set-up that the speechs produced from a lawn mower engine dumelody one hour of origination were environing 4000 μg/h; this is comparcogent to driving over than 150 km in a car aftercited a opportunity a three-way catalytic converter (Christensen & Westerholm, 2001).

Both lawn mower users and bystanders can be unguarded to uproar and air pollutant speechs. Figures from Statistics Canada point-out that there were 5,850,000 lawn mowers in Canada in 1985, the superiority of which were gas-powered (73.3%). There were comparatively fewer electric (23.9%) and incite mowers (2.8%) (Environment Canada, 1994). Most lawn mowers that are availcogent in the Canadian marketplace are qualitative (Maillette, 2001). According to instructure obtained from Statistics Canada, 126 walk-behind lawn mowers were qualitative into Canada dumelody 1996-1999. Figures on domiciliary genesis of lawn mowers are not availcogent from Toil Canada (Maillette, 2001).

Automatic lawn mower (e.g., lawn mowers) add to uproar and air defilement that can adversely move civilized heartiness and the environment, minimize uproar, weaken and evaporative speechs from lawn/pasture equipment and fortify national heartiness.

Chapter 3 : Concept fruit and evaluation

Timing Belt

Belt inciter are furnishs a suitable media for transfermelody council from one stem to another. Surround are regularly indispensable to contract the taller rotative hasten of electric motors to the inferior values required by unimpassioned equipment. But in this scheme are opposite, beproducer the trenchant utensils insufficiency a top hasten to produce-an-effect. Normally in industrial, are using two public kind of surround inciter, v-surround and timing surround (coeval surround).

Since the absorb of v-surround is proportionately low, the council output of a v-surround regularity may be augmentationd by liberal diverse surrounds aspect by aspect. All surrounds in the incite should elongate at the corresponding occasion reprove in direct to conceal the commit analogous divided unarranged them. When one of the surrounds breaks, the unimpaired assembly must usually be replaced. The incite may be desirous at any predilection aftercited a opportunity a tense aspect at either the top or foot. Since surrounds can opereprove on proportionately minute hauleys, large decrease of the hasten in a one incite are lovely.

E:ycUCTIUC4F1012MEFinal Year ProjNew folderScreenHunter_08 Feb. 12 22.14.gifE:ycUCTIUC4F1012MEFinal Year ProjNew folderScreenHunter_06 Feb. 12 21.53.gif

Pitch bisection of a hauley P = No teeth on hauley x

Drop absence d =

Belt contiguity predilection α = arc sin [C = capital absence]

Belt lapse tediousness fl =

Contact tediousness minute hauley CL2 =

Contact tediousness big hauley CL1 =

Belt tediousness L = 2(fl) + CL1+ CL2

Total compute of teeth on surround =

Big hauley, P1 = No teeth on hauley x

= 38 x

= 61.4465mm

Small hauley, P2 = No teeth on hauley x

= 18 x

= 29.1063mm

Drop absence, d =


= 16.1701mm

Belt contiguity predilection, α = arc sin [C = capital absence]

= arc sin

= 7.87°

Belt lapse tediousness , fl =

= 116.9815mm

Contact tediousness minute hauley, CL2 =


= 41.7221mm

Contact tediousness big hauley, CL1 =

= 61.4465

= 104.9601mm

Belt tediousness, L = 2(fl) + CL1+ CL2

= 2(116.9815mm) + 104.9601mm + 41.7221mm

= 380.6452mm

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Using micromagic regularity software particularize the surround tediousness.

E:ycUCTIUC4F1012MEFinal Year ProjNew folderScreenHunter_05 Feb. 12 21.53.gif

Imperial XL section

ht = 1.27mm

p = 5.08mm

hs = 2.30mm

Spur ownership

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Spur Ownership Formula

14 degree

Presendumelody Angle

20 and 25 degree

Presendumelody predilection

Addendum, a

a =

a =

Dedendum, b

b =

b =

Pitch bisection, D

D =

D =

Outaspect bisection, Do

Do =

Do =

Number of teeth, N

N = D x P

N = D x P

Tooth corpulence, t

t =

t =

Whole profoundness, ht

ht =

ht =

Clearance, c

c =

c =

Center absence, C

C =

C =

Working profoundness, hk

hk =

hk =

Chordal knob corpulence, tc

tc = D sin ()

tc = D sin ()

Chordal addendum, ac

ac = a +

ac = a +

Diametral roll, P

P =

P =

Center absence, C

C =

C =

Ball and roller courses

A sphere course usually consists of filthy parts: an secret melody, an outside melody, the spheres and the cabin or separator. To augmentation the contiguity area and encourage larger commits to be carried, the sphere run in curvilineighbomelody flutings in the melodys. The radius of the fluting is neglectly larger than the radius of the sphere, and very neglect whole of radial delineate must be furnishd. The course it thus encourageted to adright itself to minute wholes of anfractuous misalignment in the assembled stem and mounting. The separator conceals the spheres evenly intervenience and prevents them from handleing each in the aspects, where their not-absolute velocities are the sublimeest.

Ball courses are made in a large difference of kind and magnitude. One row radial courses are made in filthy course. “Extra unencumbered, unencumbered, moderation, and heavy”, for each pierce, as illustrated in Fig 1

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