Effect of Hibiscus Extract of on Rats’ Red Blood Cells

Effect of Aqueous Extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx on the Red Class Cell Enumerate of Virile and Fevirile Wistar Rats

Atsukwei Denen*, Ameh O Grace, Seriki A Samuel

Department of Human physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This con-over was conducted to evaluate the amiables of aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on the red class cell enumerate of virile and fevirile wistar rats. Irrelative doses of aqueous extol of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L calyx were administered traditionally by intra Oesophageal cannulation. The rats were disjoined into six classs. Class 1 rats (Control Class for viriles) and Class 2 rats (Control class for effeminates), were administered distilled introduce for fourteen de- days. Class 3 rats (Low dose viriles), and Class 4 rats (Low dose effeminates), were all administered 5mg Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extol for fourteen de- days. Class 5 rats (High dose viriles) and Class 6 rats (High dose effeminates), were administered 10mg Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extol for 14 de- days. Results showed that lofty doses of the aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx momentyly inferiored the red class cell enumerate of twain virile and fevirile rats in Groups 5 and 6 (p<0.01). However, there was no momenty unlikeness (p>0.01) in the Red Class Cell Enumerate of Groups 3 and 4 (Low dose viriles and effeminates respectively) which were all administered 5mg of the extol. This con-over shows that, aqueous extol of Hibiscus Sabdariffa calyx at lofty doses had no wholesome amiables on the red cell enumerate of the wistar rats. Thus, impoverish of Hibiscus sabdariffa in lofty doses can object generalized concealment of red class cell genesis.

Key words: Hibiscus sabdariffa, red class cell, anaemia, wistar rats

INTRODUCTION/LITERATURE REVIEW

The use of places in Physic goes as far end as thousands of years ago and quiescent continues today. Frequent places are used for the texture of irrelative diseases and frequent entertain antimicrobial activities (Arora and Kaur, 1999).

Hibiscus sabdariffa is frequently determined Roselle in English. It belongs to the lineage Malvaceae, which is natural to Old World tropics; now rationalistic per-annum throughout the tropics. It is an annual herb or woody-based shrub place reported natural to typical Africa and confirmed in genial enumerateries including Malaysia. The Petals may be red or uncooked, its leaves are deeply three to five lobed, desire, and de- alternately on the stems.

All the compatability of Hibiscus sabdariffa are used for medicinal purposes distinctly in alternatural physic (Ali et al., 2005). The place is confirmed for the red or uncooked calyces or petals of its cream which are largely used to plan herbal drinks, beverages, jam and jellies.

Besides the delicious aroma and fairness of the place itself, Hibiscus sabdariffa entertaines qualities of transmitted medicinal places and subsistence. As a medicinal place, it is used as a therapeutic, a laxative, and anti-carcinogenic, an antihypertensive, a diuretic and a cholesterol murky medicinal place (McKay and Blumberg 2006). As-well it exhibits noble antioxidant breath, inferiors hepatoxicity and impoverishs flush. Hibiscus calyx and leaves can be used in medicinal applications as a luscious reembodiment for cough, bald disposition and as an anti-bacterial embodiment. Almost all the compatability of Hibiscus sabdariffa place are considered diuretic and anti-scorbutic in their possession (McKay and Blumberg 2006).

Hibiscus springs are used in the genesis of vegetable oil in China and rarely as a supply for coffee. Hibiscus stem is culinary and used as an apperceive and tonic in the Philippines(Ali et al.2005).The difficult segregate of Hibiscus sabdariffa place is used in the genesis of wreath and thread notorious as “rosella hemp” (McKay and Blumberg 2006).

The vegetable is widely confirmed and frequently used as harbor herb or soup in the northern segregate of Nigeria. In Hausa the place is concentratively determined Yakuwa, the spring ‘Isontea’ conjuncture the ruddy calyx is referred to as Soboroto. The Yoruba circumvent the leaves Amukan and the creams Ishapa. The Igbo’s circumvent it Okworoozo. However, it is frequently determined Zobo in Nigeria (Adeguloye et al., 1993).

Nigerian researchers entertain shown how extols of Hibiscus sabdariffa (frequently determined Zobo) enhanced restitution from liver impairment, offered cardiovascular refuge, could be a amiable lenient, improved pregnancy issue and helped in moment dropping (Adeguloye et al., 1993).

All compatability of hibiscus places are used transmittedly. Due to their luscious (demulcent) and galling properties, the creams and leaves entertain been transmittedly used to disroute stipulations such as cancer and gallbladder attacks, to inferior class constraining, to help dry coughs, and topically to disroute husk afflictions. The stem has been used as a tonic (Onyenekwe et al., 1999).

The creams inclose stout quantities of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, which are associated following a time anti-oxidant, antipyretic, analgesic and spasmolytic activities (Onyenekwe et al.,1999).

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Plant material

The ruddy samples of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx was obtained from Nyanya bargain a environ of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

Preparation of place extol

It was then air dried at margin sphere (36-37 station Celsius), and established into interlard using the Warring interchangeable blender. 200 g of the interlard was dissolved in 1500ml of distilled introduce, it was inspirited entirely, twice common,ordinary for 3 days following which it was decanted, oozeed using ooze tractate, and the remainder discarded. The percolate was then evaporated to dryness in an oven at boiling subject-matter of 100 station Celsius, the conclusioning interlard of the extol was scrapped from the crucible and then stored in capped bottles (Adegunloye et al., 1993).

The extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa was then dissolved in distilled introduce to form a fund key (e.g., 2.5g of the extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa, dissolved in 500ml of distilled introduce to confer a fund key of 5mg/ml).The fund key was preserved by composure throughout the 14 days of government.

Treatment of animals

Thirty Wister rats consideration betwixt 180 to 230g were used throughout this ventilation for homogeneous conclusions. They were purchased from the carnal decorum Unit of the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD) Idu, Abuja, Nigeria.

The carnals were comfortable in uprightsedsed steel cages and kept at margin sphere. The wistar rats were fed twice daily following a time uprightsedsed introduce and pelleted gauge laboratory gratify. They were known to acclimatize for 28 days previous to the rise of the illustration. Following the 28 days of acclimatization, the carnals were disjoined into six classs of five each as shown under.

GROUP 1 (Control virile class); comprising of five viriles were confern 0.5ml of distilled introduce daily throughout the 14 days of traditional government

GROUP 2 (Control effeminates); comprising of five effeminates were confern 0.5ml of distilled introduce daily throughout the 14 days of traditional government.

GROUP 3 (Low dose viriles); comprising of five viriles were administered 5mg of the Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx’s extol (orally) daily for 14 days.

GROUP 4 (Low Dose Females’ Group); comprising five effeminates were administered 5mg of the Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx’s extol (orally) daily for 14 days.

GROUP 5 (High dose viriles); Comprising of five viriles were all confern 10mg of the Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx’s extol (orally) daily for 14 days.

GROUP 6 (High dose effeminates); Comprising of five effeminates were all confern 10mg of the Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx’s extol (orally) daily for 14 days.

Blood store and storage

After the 14 days of traditional governments of the Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extols by intra oesophageal cannulation, class samples were composed by severing the tip of the body of each carnal in all the classs including the manage classs on day 15 of the illustration. To neutralize coagulation, the class samples were composed in EDTA bottles.

Red class cell enumerate procedures

The red class cell enumerate were estimated using haemocytometer manner as picturesquely by Schalm et al., (1975

Statistical Analysis

Results were explicit as Medium ± Gauge Error of Mean. Statistical anatomy was carried out using student’s t-test and P<0.01 was considered momenty.

RESULTS

Results of sum Red class cell enumerate

The medium prize of red class cell of Class 1 rats (Control viriles) was 8.90 ± 0.195, conjuncture that of Class 2 rats (Control effeminates) was 8.70 ± 0.173. There was an exceedingly momenty unlikeness in the medium red class cell prizes of rats in Class 1 (Control viriles) which had medium red class cell prize of 8.90 ± 0.195, and Class 5 (High dose viriles) which had medium red class cell prize of 5.90 ± 0.070, (p < 0.01). These rats were administered 10mg of the extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx for 14 days. There was as-well an exceedingly momenty unlikeness in the medium Red class cell prizes of Class 2 rats (Control effeminates), following a time medium red class cell prize of 8.70 ± 0.173 and Class 6 rats (High dose effeminates) which had medium red class cell prize of 5.90 ± 0.070,( p > 0.01). These rats were administered 10mg of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx for 14 days.

There was no momenty unlikeness betwixt the medium Red class cell prizes of Class 1 rats (Control viriles) which had medium red class cell prize of 8.90 ± 0.195, and Class 3 rats (Low dose viriles) administered 5mg of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx for 14 days, which had medium red class cell prize of 8.62 ± 0.444, (p > 0.01). There was as-well no momenty unlikeness betwixt the medium red class cell prize of Class 2 rats (Control effeminates) which had medium red class cell prize of 8.70 ± 0.173 and Class 4 rats (Low dose effeminates) administered 5mg aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx for 14 days which had medium red class cell prize of 8.53 ± 0.321 , (p>0.01)

DISCUSSION

In this con-over, aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx was administered traditionally at irrelative doses.There was a momenty unlikeness in the medium red class cell enumerate prizes of rats in Class 5 (High dose viriles) when compared following a time rats in Class 1 (Control viriles), (p < 0.01).There was as-well a momenty unlikeness in the medium red class cell enumerate prizes of rats in Class 6 (High dose effeminates), when compared following a time Class 2 (Control effeminates), (p < 0.01).Groups 5 and 6 rats were each administered 10mg Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx’s extol.

There was no momenty unlikeness in the medium red class cell enumerate of Class 3 rats (Low dose viriles) when compared following a time Class 1 rats (Control viriles), (p>0.01). There was as-well no momenty unlikeness in the medium red class cell enumerate prizes of rats in Class 4 (Low dose effeminates) when compared following a time rats in Class 2 (Control effeminates), ( p > 0.01). Groups 3 and 4 rats were each administered 5mg Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx’s extol. Impoverish in red class cell enumerates may be due to impoverishd red class cell genesis or extensiond analysis of red class cells from prevalence. This conclusions in anemia and may be objectd by the trodden toxic pi of aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on the annoyance cream of red class cell precursors (Fakeye et al., 2009)

This findings does not harmonize following a time the nutritionist in Central American bargains that stock the place lofty in Calcium, Niacin, riboflavin and Iron (Gilani et al., 2009). Ordinarily, the place substance deep in Calcium, Niacin, Riboflavin and Iron, should extension red class cell enumerate prizes, but it rather impoverishd the red class cell enumerate prizes. This may be due to the station of toxicity of the place substance lofty ample to smother the decisive amiables of Calcium, Niacin, Riboflavin and Iron on the annoyance cream of red class cell precursors, thus causing a impoverish rather than an extension in the red class cell enumerate of the wistar rats.

In the route of the 14 days of government of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extol, a momenty decrease in the moments of the rats was observed; this may be due to the diuretic properties of the place (McKay et al.2010).

There were neglect unlikenesss in the red class cell enumerate of virile rats in Groups 1, 3 and 5 when compared following a time the fevirile rats in Groups 2, 4 and 6. Hormonal unlikenesss entertain been linked to the unlikeness in the red class cell enumerate of viriles and effeminates. It has been antecedent that effeminates entertain lofty oestrogen equalize which smotheres possession of erythropoietin, heresucceeding effeminates entertain inferior red class cell enumerate. Also, testosterone confer-upon in viriles entertain been antecedent to entertain an accelerating pi on erythropoietin, hereafter, viriles entertain a neglectly loftyer red class cell enumerate, though it has not been scientifically proven.

Asegregate from Hibiscus sabdariffa, other substances entertain been shown to urge irrelative amiables on red class cell enumerate. For issue, researches entertain shown that spinach extol incloses a lofty equalize of Iron and heresucceeding extensions red class cells in prevalence (Koren, 2007). It has been discovered that garlic extol due to its mineral constituents e.g. Calcium and Iron, extensions red class cell enumerate of mammals (including humans) (Oluwole, 2001). Accutane as-well notorious as isotretinoin, a offal used to disroute caustic acne or indubitable other husk stipulations and cancer impoverishs red class cell enumerate , as-well alcohol (e.g. dry gin) has been discovered to impoverish red class cell enumerate (Bunn et al., 2011).

Conclusion

The conclusions of this conclusion entertain shown that traditional government of aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx in lofty dose impoverishd the red class cell enumerate of Wistar rats. This conclusion propose that abundance impoverish of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx may transfer to anaemia.

REFERENCES

Adeguloye, B.J., Owolabi, O.A., Ajagbonna O.P., Sofola, O.A. (1993): Calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa elicits recreation of rat aorta by stabilizing the membran and cutting Na+-K+ATpase. Nigerian Journal  of Physiological science 9:74-79.

Ali, B.H., Al Wabel, N.,and Blunden, G. (2005): “Phytochemical, Pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx: a retrospect”. Phytotherapy Research 19(5): 369-75.

Arora, D. and Kaur, J. (1999): Antimicrobial breath of spices; International Journal of Antimicrobial embodiments 12:257-262.

Bunn, H.F, Goldman L, and Schafer A.I (2011): Approach to anemia Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevie : portion 161.

Fakeye, T.O., Paul,A., Bawankole D.Yadav, N.P., and Khanuja, S.P. (2009): Toxic pi of Traditional government of Dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa a retrospect”.Phytotherapy Research 23(30:412-416.

Gilani, A.H, Shah, A.J, and Zubair, A. (2009): Chemical Composition &mechanisms underlying the spasmolytic and bronchodilatory properties of the quantitative oil of Nepeta cataria L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 121:405-411.

Koren, G. (2007): Medication protection in pregnancy and breastfeeding. McGraw-Hill Professional. pg.279.

McKay, D.L., and Blumberg, J.B. (2006): A retrospect of the biobreath and undeveloped heartiness benefits of chamomile tea (Matricariarecutita L.)” Phytother Res.20:519-530.

McKay, D.L., Chen, C.O.,Blumberg, J.B. (2010): Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Tea (tisane) inferiors class constraining in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.Journal of Nutrition. 140 (2): 298–303.

Oluwole, F.S. (2001): Pi of garlic in some haematological and biochemical parameters; African. Bloomed. Research. Volume 4, Pages 139-149.

Onyenekwe, P.C.,Ajani, E.O.,Ameli, D.A., Garnamel, K.S.(1999): Antihypertensivepi of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx absorption in voluntarily hypertensiverats and similitude of its toxicity following a time thatin Wister rats. Cell Biochemical functions 17:199-205.

Schalm, O.W, Jain N.C and Caroll, E.J: Textbook of Veterinary Haematology, 2nd Edition, Published by Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, (1975) Pp. 129- 250.

Table 1: Pi of traditional government of aqueous extol of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on red class cell enumerate following 14 days of government.

 

Group Amount of extol Red class cell enumerate

mg (106/L)

Group1(Control viriles) – 8.90 ± 0.195

Group 2(Control effeminates) – 8.70 ± 0.173

Group 3(Low dose viriles) 5 8.62 ± 0.444

Group 4(Low dose effeminates) 5 8.53 ± 0.321

Group 5(High dose viriles) 10 5.90 ± 0.070*

Group 6(High dose effeminates) 10 5.90 ± 0.070*

 
     

Values are Medium ± S.E.M (n=5): * asterisks betoken momenty unlikeness (p<0.01) when compared following a time the manages.

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