Unknown Metals Chemical and Physical Properties

Identification of metals


This trial allure dare chemical and natural properties of three obscure metals in regulate to authenticate them from nine divergent metals Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pt, Ag, Sn, Pb. Chemical and natural properties were standarded through inobservance, Sodium Hydroxide, misplacement and Hydrochloric sarcastic standards. The inobservance and sodium hydroxide standards were sportive period misplacement and hydrochloric sarcastic standards were disunited; future, the disgusting ends straight to each other. However, the anatomy proved that metal A was aluminum, metal B was zinc, and metal C was Iron. Past the ends were disunited, they became baseless, for the conclusive identification of the metals may be faulty.

Aim: To standard the chemical and natural properties of three obscure metals by using disgusting methods, inobservance, sodium hydroxide, misplacement and hydrochloric sarcastic, in regulate to authenticate the unfair metals out of nine divergent choices – Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pt, Ag, Sn, Pb.

Introduction – 1

This EEI dares students’ brains of the uncommon properties of metals which they are required to delineation and execute disgusting divergent standards. The trials prove twain natural and chemical properties of the three obscure metals in regulate to authenticate them.

All matters accept chemical and natural properties that we use to know or assimilate from a matter from another. In restitution, chemical and natural properties can succor us mould the matter; thus, brains how a matter allure beaccept beneathneathneath several conditions. “The chemical nature of an part draws its immanent to beneathneathgo some chemical veer or counteraction by power of its adjustment to consequence a new junction. On the other laborer, natural properties are those which a matter can parade outside losing its unity and can be used to draw their behaviour (Ophardt, C., 2003)”

Furthermore, the organization of a metal explains the chemical and natural properties. For solicitation, metal is a lattice of dogmatic ions in a sea of delocalised electrons (Spence, R. Gemellaro, T. Bramley, L. Wilson, D.

In the trial, disgusting standards were clarified to authenticate the metals which were inobservance, misplacement, hydrochloric sarcastic and sodium hydroxide.

1.1. Density

First, inobservance, which is defined as the estimate of the referring-to bulk of objects following a occasion a true magnitude, is a natural nature, as each part and junction has a uncommon inobservance associated following a occasion it. Inobservance standard is referring-toly obsequious and can be used to authenticate the metals past they all accept their own uncommon inobservance.

Formula to furnish inobservance: (Ophardt, C., 2003)

Density = bulk/magnitude = g/cm3

The densities of flowing metals: (Density of metals, n.d.)


Density (g cm-^3)


Density (g/cm-^3)



  • Lead




  • Magnesium




  • Tin




  • Silver


  • Table 1



1.2. Sodium Hydroxide

Second, the sodium hydroxide standard mixes two keys and an insoluble matter is formed (France, C. n.d.).

For in:

Copper sulfate + Sodium hydroxide à Copper hydroxide stable(precipitate) + Sodium sulfate

CuSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) à Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq)

Precipitation of flowing metals: (Laboratory standards, n.d.)


1.3. Misplacement counteraction 

Third, the misplacement counteraction standard estimates chemical properties of metals where a metal displaces a plug counteractive metal in a metal salt key (AUS-e-TUTE, n.d.)

For in:

Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) à FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)

Note that copper (II) sulphate is cerulean, and vigorous sulphate is colourless. During the counteraction, the cerulean key loses its colour, and the vigorous clever into pink-brown as the displaced copper becomes deposited on it. If a plug counteractive metal is pretended to a metal salt key there allure be no counteraction; future, dot allure fall. For solicitation, Vigorous is plug counteractive than magnesium.

The regulates of the metals in the counteractivity train can be worked out by using misplacement (see emblem ). Moreover, the counteractivity of a metal is artful by the reckon of valence electrons and the met smooths (TutorVista, n.d.).For solicitation, the superior the reckon of shells and pluger the reckon of valence electrons, the superior the counteractivity of the metal is.

The regulate of counteractivity train or flowing metals: (TutorVista, n.d.)

Most counteractive to plug counteractive

Number of met smooths and valencies.















Table 3

1.4. Hydrochloric sarcastic 

Fourth, the hydrochloric sarcastic standard is concordant to the misplacement standard which determines the counteractivity of metals. The eminent the counteractivity of the metal is the sonorouser the “pop” fathom allure supervene.


Zn + 2HCl à ZnCl2 + H2

Displacement and Hydrochloric sarcastic standards were clarified for the trial owing these two trials identifies the metals by standarding the counteractivity of each metal, and, from the regulate of counteractivity train (see emblem x) the metal can be signed.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Density 


  • Electronic lamina
  • Micrometre pain-gauge
  • Vernier caliper


  • All materials and apparatus was attained
  • The three obscure metals were weighed on the electronic lamina to emblem out their weight
  • The inobservance of the three obscure metals was worked out through the estimatement of their tediousness, width and acme and then multitudinous to furnish the magnitude; the bulk was then disjoined by the magnitude to emblem out its inobservance

2.2. Sodium Hydroxide 


Spotter tile

2M Sodium Hydroxide


The three obscure metal nitrates were placed into 3 divergent discolorations on the discolorationter tile

The sodium hydroxide was then pretended to each one and observations were narrative

The metals were then worked out by similitude following a occasion the consideration beneath and narrative

2.3. Displacement 



Magnesium Nitrate

Aluminium Nitrate

Iron Nitrate

Zinc Nitrate

Nickel Nitrate

Silver Nitrate

Tin Nitrate

Lead Nitrate

Piece of A4 paper

9 standard tubes

Test tube harass (must accept past than 9 standard tube holes)


The Chemical provisions for all 9 nitrates were written on a party of paper and then slipped beneathneathneath the standard tube harass to compel sboard the key in each standard tube was correct

9 standard tubes were placed into the standard tube harass following a occasion each nature employed following a occasion the formal key

Each obscure metal were cut up into 9 slender strips

The chief obscure metal strips were placed into each standard tube

The gauge of counteractivity was narrative into the consideration beneath

Steps 2 – 4 were coagulated following a occasion cleaned standard tubes, new keys and the other obscure metals until all 3 were standarded

2.4. Hydrochloric Acid 


  • Matches
  • 6M Hydrochloric sarcastic
  • 3 standard tubes
  • Test tube harass (3 standard tube holes reserve)
  • Tin snips
  • Stop observe


  • 6M Hydrochloric sarcastic (HCl) was obtained and 3 standard tubes were placed into a standard tube harass
  • Metal A, B and C were cut up and each one was placed individually into each of the standard tubes
  • Hydrochloric sarcastic was pretended and the standard tube was then dressed following a occasion a thumb and durationd for 1 diminutive using a seal observe
  • After 55 remedys a companion was lit up and cheerful to be placed into the aperture of the standard tube as quickly as the thumb was charmed off
  • The thumb was charmed off, the companion was placed in and the concentration of the counteraction was narrative


3. Analysis

By standarding and analysing the chemical and natural properties of each surrender metal, we segregate the possibilities and authenticate the unfair metal.

3. 1. Density

First, the trialal ends for inobservance were assimilated to the presumptive computes (see consideration 1) to authenticate the metals. For solicitation, metal A had a inobservance of 1.15g/cm3 which was plug to magnesium’s presumptive compute of 1.74 g/cm3 or aluminium’s inobservance of 2.70 g/cm3. Metal B had inobservance of 7.28 g/cm3 which was very-abundant plug to tin’s presumptive compute of 7.31 g/cm3 and zinc’s inobservance of 7.13 g/cm3 and vigorous’s inobservance of 7.86 g/cm3. Finally, metal C’s inobservance was 7.16 g/cm3 which was plug to inobservance of zinc, 7.13 g/cm3 and tin, 7.31 g/cm3 and vigorous, 7.86 g/cm3. The inobservance standard involved that metal A is magnesium or aluminium and metal B and C are vigorous or zinc or well-balanced tin.


3.2. Sodium hydroxide

Second, the sodium hydroxide standard proved the subsidence of each surrendern metal and assimilated them following a occasion presumptive ends (See consideration 2 and 5). Metal A and B paradeed half-hearted unspotted subsidence period metal C consequenced flinty unspotted subsidence. These ends were used to advance analyse the possibility for metal A, B and C. For solicitation, metal A, which could be magnesium or aluminium, sinkd unspotted. According to the consideration (?), metal A was tranquil obscure past aluminium and magnesium twain had unspotted subsidence. Metal B, which could be zinc or vigorous or tin, sinkd unspotted. However, the presumptive ends paradeed that vigorous and tin do not sink unspotted; future, metal B can be signed as zinc. Similarly, metal C paradeed seally selfselfhomogeneous end as metal B; future, it could be signed as zinc. However, as metal B and C cannot be twain zinc, advance anatomy allure release the insupposable and eccentric ends


3.3. Displacement

Third, the misplacement standard proved the counteractivity. The misplacement standard places the metals in a past obsequious discoloration on the counteractivity train (See consideration 9). It paradeed the counteractivity smooth of each metal by observing the metal salt keys they displaced. However, the misplacement standard should accept supposing past formal note to authenticate each metal, but they became baseplug as the ends were inexact. According to the end, metal A displaced nickel, tin and silver, but didn’t displaced bring and any eminent counteractivity metals over nickel, which involved that metal A was past counteractive than nickel, yet plug than zinc, for metal A was an vigorous. However, the ends and the anatomy of inobservance and sodium hydroxide are contradicting the misplacement ends; future, advance anatomy through of hydrochloric sarcastic standard allure authenticate metal A. On the other laborer, metal B displaced all the metals beneath zinc, save vigorous. This proved that metal B cannot be zinc; in deed, it was magnesium or aluminium. Once anew, the ends were contradicting the inobservance and sodium hydroxide ends. Furthermore, metal C displaced all of the metals save magnesium, zinc and bring. According to the inobservance and sodium hydroxide anatomy, metal C is zinc or vigorous; future, it cannot be past counteractive than aluminium. However, the end suggested that metal C was magnesium as it did counteract following a occasion aluminium. To sum up, metal A had could be signed as vigorous, aluminium and magnesium. However, past the inobservance of vigorous is 7.86 g/cm3, and the metal A’s inobservance is simply 1.15g/cm3, which is plug to aluminium or magnesium, vigorous cannot be metal A. Also, metal B’s inobservance is plug to zinc and vigorous, but is past counteractive than vigorous; future, metal B may be signed as zinc. Past the selfselfhomogeneous part cannot counteract each other, this can be seen as an eccentric end. The anatomy of metal C suggested that it cannot be zinc nor can it be vigorous. Metal C cannot be magnesium or aluminium past there is vast dissonance in inobservance. However, advance anatomy of hydrochloric sarcastic standard allure expose the unfair metals.


3.4. Hydrochloric sarcastic

Finally, the hydrochloric sarcastic standard was concordant to the misplacement standard as twain established the counteractivity of surrendern metals. However, the hydrochloric sarcastic standard counteracts following a occasion hydrogen. In this trial, metal A and B displaced hydrogen gas from the hydrochloric sarcastic, period metal C did not counteract (See consideration 7). Metal A had a slender counteraction when the flash went out forthdelay outside making a pop fathom. However, metal B was very-abundant counteractive, making the sonorous pop fathom. However, the key counteracted following a occasion the metal simply for one diminutive; ultimately, some metals captivate past than one diminutive to counteract. For solicitation, metal A simply had a slender counteraction beneathneathneath one diminutive, but counteracted aggressively following two diminutives, which indicates that metal A is aluminium. On the other laborer, the ends exposeed that metal B is zinc as it was very counteractive following a occasion hydrochloric sarcastic, suggesting that it is the most counteractive metal from the possibility of zinc and vigorous. Furthermore, metal C did not counteract following a occasion hydrochloric sarcastic at all which was incontrovertible from the flash as it didn’t go out. Anatomy of the foregoing standards paradeed that metal C had possibility zinc or vigorous. Past the counteraction of metal C is slenderer than metal B; metal C can be signed as vigorous.

In weak, the anatomy of the disgusting standards for chemical and natural properties exposeed that metal A is aluminium, metal B is zinc and metal C is vigorous.


5. Discussion

The three surrendern metals were signed by using disgusting standards: inobservance, sodium hydroxide, misplacement and hydrochloric sarcastic. By carrying out these trials, the chemical and natural properties were standarded to authenticate the metals. The trial signed metal A as aluminium, metal B as zinc and metal C as vigorous. However, well-balanced though the standards signed the metals, multifarious eccentric ends were build.

Firstly, the inobservance standard was estimated by the micrometre pain fathom, the vernier calliper and electronic lamina. The eccentric ends of this trial were that the inobservance of metal A, B and C did not companion the presumptive computes. For solicitation, metal A, which was signed as aluminium, has a inobservance of 1.15; future, does not companion following a occasion presumptive compute of 2.70. In deed, the inobservance of metal A is past plug to magnesium. Selfhomogeneous eccentric were observed the metal B and C. To deviate and reform the inobservance trial, one has to estimate the width, met and tediousness properly. In restitution, putting the metals into impart and see how abundant they unsparingly is another way to reform the standard.

Secondly, the sodium hydroxide standard had compatible ends. All of the metals had a unspotted subsidence which was expected.

Thirdly, the misplacement standards had important disunited ends; future, baseless. For solicitation, metal B cannot be zinc when it counteracted following a occasion zinc. This can be seen as an eccentric. This exceptional counteraction is cogitation to be a recoil of using foul equipment, or the qualitative mixing of keys, for the standard tubes were not cleaned precedently use. The selfselfhomogeneous eccentric ends supervenered when standarding metal B and C. For in, metal C counteracted following a occasion aluminium but did not counteract following a occasion zinc, bring and tin. This is a mendacious end past aluminium is past counteractive than zinc or bring or tin. This trial can be reformd by having cleaned standard tubes and the standard tubes to eschew mix ups.

Finally, the hydrochloric sarcastic standarded the counteractivity of metal A, B and C. In this trial, a seal observe was used to estimate how firm the metal counteracted following a occasion hydrochloric sarcastic in one diminutive, and companiones were used to standard the counteractivity of the metals and hydrogen. However, this standard also had coagulated eccentric ends owing metals did not counteract in honest one diminutive. For solicitation, if metal C which had no counteraction and cogitation to be vigorous was left three to five diminutives longer, there rule accept been a counteraction. In deed, following recording and disregarding the standard tube for three diminutives, it agoing to counteract opposing no counteraction in one diminutive. The selfselfhomogeneous eccentric ends were narrative for metal A and B. To deviate and reform the trial, the duration for the counteraction scarcity to be liberal to three diminutives or five diminutives. This allure surrender duration for metals to counteract; future, snare past hydrogen, making the ends past obsequious. Moreover, the duration charmed to extort the flash into the standard tube was almost 3 remedys. If the duration was decreased to one remedy, there rule accept been a counteraction for metal C.

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